Some argue that the high replacement amounts are bad for the game. Football Union FIFPro called Neymar`s transfer «anti-competitive.» «Football is increasingly the domain of a select group of rich clubs, mostly based in Europe,» FIFPro Secretary General Theo van Seggelen said in a recent statement. The increase in replacement amounts has «helped to break the competitive balance,» he said, as few top clubs such as Manchester United, Real Madrid or Bayern Munich can afford to buy elite players. They then dominate the leagues, not the poorest clubs. Buying clubs must set up payment of replacement sums in case of binding conditions to ensure that the necessary conditions regarding the player`s permission to play for the buying club are met. ↩ This additional purchasing power filters into higher replacement amounts. Last year, clubs spent more money than ever before on international transfers. According to FIFA, in 2016, $4.79 billion was spent worldwide on 14,591 deals, or about $328,000 per average deal. Transfer fees are not always officially confirmed by trade clubs and figures published by unofficial sources may take into account various fees, such as fees paid to agents or a third party elements of the royalty related to the performance and fictitious value of all players involved in a partial exchange. The result is different figures from different sources. Performance clauses have become more common in recent years, which means that it is more difficult to draw up definitive lists of the largest replacement amounts than in the past. For example, Wayne Rooney`s transfer from Everton to Manchester United in 2004 cost an initial $20 million to $27 million due to the number of performances he has won with the club. The first $2 million tax, paid by an English club, came in the summer of 1988, when Tottenham Hotspur hired Paul Gascoigne from Newcastle United. A few weeks after the transfer of Gascony, the national record was again broken when Tony Cottee went from West Ham United to Everton for US$2.2 million, and shortly thereafter, when Ian Rush returned from Juventus Turin to Liverpool for $2.8 million. In professional football, a free transfer, also called a Bosman transfer, includes a football club that releases a player when the player`s contract has expired or was made available shortly before the end of the contract.